Sea Freight, a broad definition of all sea-related business activities. However, the development of the sea, the general meaning of the sea transport, such as bulk cargo transport, container transport, such as Port to Hong Kong sea transport. But at any time the development of the Internet, especially the recent Love ship network and the development of internet predators such as Alibaba, the definition of late shipping may run through the sea and land, is expected to develop into the door to the sea and land transport integrated transport industry.
The advantages of shipping
Ocean transportation is the most important mode of transportation in international trade, more than two-thirds of the total volume of international trade, most of our import and export goods are transported by means of ocean transportation. Ocean transportation is large in volume, shipping costs are low, the waterway in all directions, is its advantages. But the speed is slow, the navigation risk is big, the sailing date is not easy to be accurate, is its shortcoming. According to the mode of operation of the ship, ocean transportation can be divided into liner transportation and charter transportation; According to the classification of the region, container transportation can be divided into domestic shipping and foreign trade.
A. Characteristics of liner Transport: (L) Liner shipping has a fixed sailing schedule, route, port of call and a relatively fixed freight rate; (2) The liner freight includes loading and unloading, so the port of the liner is responsible for the loading and unloading of the ship; (3) The quantity of liner carrier cargo is more flexible, and the shipper can order It is particularly suitable for the transport of general groceries and container cargoes.
B. Liner freight.
Liner shipping charges are stipulated by the liner tariff, including basic freight and various surcharge. The basic freight is divided into two main categories: one is the traditional freight of groceries;
Groceries are also charged on the basis of commodity prices or items. A large quantity of low-value goods may be negotiated between the ship and the cargo.
The surcharge for liner freight is numerous, including the extra surcharge, overweight surcharge, the choice of port surcharge, alteration of port surcharge, fuel surcharge, congestion surcharge, cruise surcharge, transshipment surcharge and direct shipping surcharge.
In addition to the above-mentioned shipping costs, the cost of container transportation shall include the related service charge and equipment utilization fee.
In addition, the liner company mixed with different goods in the same package, according to which the higher charges charged freight. The same ticket goods, such as packaging different, their billing level and standards are also different, if the shipper fails to separate the gross weight and volume according to the different packing, then the total of the goods according to the higher charge charges, the same bill of lading has two or more different goods, if the shipper did not specify gross weight and volume, also from the high billing.
Chartering means chartering the whole ship. The cost of chartering is lower than that of liner, and it can choose direct route, so bulk cargo is generally used for chartering. There are two kinds of chartering methods, which are fixed-process chartering and regular chartering.
1. Fixed journey Charter. Fixed-Journey chartering is a voyage-based method, also known as a trip charter. The ship must complete the cargo transport tasks on the voyage as stipulated in the Charter party and be responsible for the operation and management of the ship and the expenses incurred in the voyage. The freight of the voyage Charter is generally calculated on the basis of the quantity of the goods shipped, as well as the charter amount.
The rights and obligations of the parties to the Charter shall be stipulated in the Charter contract. In the way of chartering, the contract shall make clear whether the ship bears the cost of handling the goods at the port. If the ship does not bear the loading and unloading, the contract shall stipulate the period of loading or unloading, as well as the corresponding demurrage fee and the rate of dispatch. If the lessee fails to complete the loading and unloading work within the time limit. In order to compensate the ship for the loss caused by the delay in sailing, the ship shall pay a certain fine, that is, demurrage fee. If the lessee completes the loading and unloading work in advance, the lessee pays a certain bonus, called the speed dispatch fee. Usually the rate of dispatch is half the demurrage fee.
2. Charter on a regular basis. A term charter is a way of renting a ship for a certain period of time, also known as the term Charter, the ship shall provide seaworthy ships during the lease period stipulated in the contract, and bear the relevant expenses for keeping the airworthiness. During this period, the charterers shall be in charge of the control of the ship within the prescribed navigation area, but should be responsible for the expenses in the operation of fuel, port and handling costs.