Maritime transport, broadly defined as all sea-related business activities. However, the development of the sea, the general meaning of the sea transport, such as bulk cargo transport, container transport, such as Port to Hong Kong sea transport. But at any time the development of the Internet, especially the recent Love ship network and the development of internet predators such as Alibaba, the definition of late shipping may run through the sea and land, is expected to develop into the door to the sea and land transport integrated transport industry.
Ocean transportation is the most important mode of transportation in international logistics, which refers to the use of ships through sea lanes in different countries and regions of the port between the transport of goods. More than 2/3 of the total volume of international trade, China's total import and export shipments of about 90% are using sea transport.
With the rapid development of China's economy, China has become one of the most important shipping countries in the world. Entering the new century, China's maritime industry to maintain rapid growth momentum, port throughput and container throughput at an average of 16.5% and 30% of the speed of development.
2007, China's marine transport industry continued to maintain rapid development, the annual increase in value of 341.4 billion yuan, a year-on-year growth of 21.1%. By 2007, the million-ton port from 2000 to 3 development to 14, Shanghai port throughput from 204 million tons rose to 531 million tons, in 2005 to the world's first port. Shanghai port container throughput 26.15 million standard box, the first time in the world, second only to Singapore. China's coastal mining, coal, oil, box, grain five transportation systems are basically established, port cargo throughput and container throughput in the world for five consecutive years ranked first, container annual throughput in 2007, the first breakthrough billion boxes, ships capacity of more than 100 million dwt.
In the first half of 2008, the overall prosperity of China's shipping market climbed and the segmentation market was obviously differentiated. In the second half of 2008, the accelerated transmission of the financial crisis to the real economy is causing the global shipping industry to plunge into a slump. This sudden and significant setback contrasts with the dramatic irony of the industry, which has been crying out a few years ago, that "the shipping industry is experiencing the perfect opportunity for 10 years." The great importance that the maritime industry of the world has shown to the crisis, especially the serious situation of its future development, is enough to reflect the setback of this crisis to the shipping industry.
In the face of crisis, there is danger and opportunity for everyone. The financial crisis has provided the opportunity for China's maritime industry to upgrade and develop, and the shipping industry has come down from the high profit range, which will accelerate the survival of the marine enterprises and the integration of resources. The financial turmoil has also created conditions for the transformation of the shipping industry, and the maritime enterprises have improved their scientific development ability by actively expanding the fields and scopes of cooperation with capital, finance and insurance industries. The economic crisis has made the current ship, steel prices have fallen sharply, for shipping enterprises to achieve LOW-COST expansion to create conditions.
China's maritime industry "national" strategy in recent years to accelerate the promotion of shipbuilding and customer cooperation more and more closely. In addition to the shipping companies with large customers to sign import iron ore, crude oil and other bulk cargo long-term contract, shipping companies and customers to form joint venture transportation company's way of cooperation began to appear. The country's energy-transport plan by 2010 will increase the proportion of oil and bulk raw materials transported by Chinese ships to more than 50% per cent, and gradually increase to around 80% by 2015.
Since the reform and opening up, China's foreign trade has been growing rapidly, the total import and export trade is in the forefront, and 2007 China's foreign trade With a record $2,173,830,000,000, 2008 1-September, China's total exports of foreign trade amounted to $1.9671 trillion, while more than 90% per cent of China's foreign trade volume was done by sea, in the long run, the prospects for the development of China's shipping market are attractive.
December 28, 2015, according to the relevant enterprises to provide clues, after more than a year of investigation, Development and Reform Commission on the Japanese Shipping Co., Kawasaki Steamship Co., Ltd. Merchant Mitsui, Granville Roll Shipping Co., Ltd., China wheel Wilson Logistics Co., Ltd., Chile South America Steamship Co., Ltd. Japan East Bus Co., Ltd., Chile shipping and rolling Shipping Co., Ltd. 8. The International maritime enterprises to achieve and implement the collusive bid price monopoly agreement, punishable by law, respectively, the 2014 annual sales of goods related to the Chinese market, international shipping services of 4% to 9% of the amount of fines, Total fine of $407 million.
At present, the World economic development environment has changed greatly, the World Economic center has begun to shift to the Asia-Pacific region, and the development of the world economy will also set off a new upsurge on the West Pacific coast, and further strengthening of regional economies and the development of transnational groups is providing favorable conditions for the development of China's port construction and shipping industry. Faced with great opportunities, China's Hong Kong Airlines lack of capacity is very prominent, the shortage of large oil tankers and large-scale tanker terminal berth, so that China's import and export of China's freight forwarding rate accounted for only 10%, have to hire a large number of ocean shipping. It is not only necessary to pay a large amount of foreign exchange, but also a good opportunity to develop China's maritime industry and increase employment.
The shipping industry is a capital-intensive industry, with the lack of funds in developing countries, most shipments of import and export goods cannot be controlled by the fleets of developed countries, and China is not immune from this doom. With the development and acceleration of China's industrialization process, this problem will become more and more prominent. If the solution is not good, it will form a bad cycle.
With the rapid growth of the national economy and foreign trade, China's maritime transport industry has been developing continuously and rapidly. With the increasing of sea freight volume and the increasing influence of China's maritime transportation, it has become an important factor for the prosperity of global shipping. With the rapid development of China's maritime industry, its market environment has also been changing profoundly, especially the Chinese government to adopt a positive opening to the outside world and international maritime Customs to conform to the maritime policy and regulations, for the maritime industry to provide a "competitive, open, transparent" market environment. Chinese maritime operators, including foreign businessmen who invest in China, must always understand and study their own market environment in order to take the situation into their own hands, to master the course, and to develop and grow in new situations and constantly solving new problems.
In 2012, the global economic recovery was sluggish and most international shipping demand continued to slump. The comprehensive tariff index for China's export containers, released in October 2012, was 1187.72 points, down 2.2% from the previous period; Shanghai export Container Freight index was 1202.96, down 3.6% from the previous period. 2012 European routes the traditional peak season transport demand has been weak, the route cargo volume lacks substantial growth power, the shipping company and class, suspended to reduce capacity also failed to reverse the tariff level continued to fall, the current three-month tariff fell about 600 U.S. dollars TEU, close to breakeven point. Shipping companies for the canvassing big fight price war, market tariffs generally fell 100-200 U.S. dollars feu around.
In the 2012, China's shipping industry entered a deep downturn, the 3-quarter China shipping boom index of 78.17 points, in a less prosperous interval, the chain dropped 16.37 points, the ship transport Enterprise's boom index of 70.16 points, the chain fell 17.47 points, in a less prosperous interval. Among them, dry bulk cargo transport enterprises of the boom index of 58.54 points, the chain down 15.68 points, in a relatively weak zone; the container business Boom index is 87.32, in a relatively weak zone, the chain fell significantly 32.08 points. In the 3 quarter, the boom index of Port Enterprises was 97.42, which was in a weak period, the chain fell 20.72 points, and the port enterprises fell into the doldrums for the first time since the financial crisis. The 2012 slump in the shipping market is a foregone conclusion, and the days of 2013 may be even sadder and will be the darkest days before the dawn of the shipping business.