Maritime transport is defined as all business activities related to the sea. But the development to the present, we are mentioned by the sea, the general meaning of the sea transport, such as bulk cargo transport, container transport and other port to Hong Kong's maritime transport. But the development of the Internet at any time, especially the recent love of the Internet and Alibaba and other Internet predators, the late definition of the sea may be through the land and sea, is expected to develop a door-to-door marine and land transport integrated transport industry.
1. The advantages of shipping
Marine transport is the most important mode of transport in international trade, and more than two thirds of the total volume of international trade. Most of China's import and export goods are transported by means of maritime transport. Marine transport transport capacity, low sea freight, the channel extending in all directions, is its advantage. But the speed is slow, sailing risk, sailing date is not easy, is its shortcomings. According to the mode of operation of the ship, marine transport can be divided into liner shipping and charter transportation; according to the classification of the region, container transport can be divided into domestic trade and foreign trade shipping.
2. Operation flow
The carrier of the ship unloading documents: the carrier's agent to receive manifests, cargo stowage plans, sub-manifests to the Customs and Excise Department for ship entry formalities, and to the consignee issued a notice of arrival, while the above Documents shipped to the port, tally and other units; ship arrived in Hong Kong, the tally company by cargo manifest tally, with the cargo plot to guide the unloading, when the goods occurred in the short or the original residual, the preparation of goods overflow single or goods Damaged single, by the mate after signing, to provide the relevant units. Goods from the consignor to the consignor to pick up the goods until the consignor, several major shipping documents and circulation procedures are as follows:
1, shipping documents (handled by the shipper)
Shippers fill in the consignment note (including consignment notes, bills of lading, receipts, etc.), because the contents of these three documents are roughly the same, so they are combined into a single, a print made.
Consignment note: the consignment note is also a deposit card, the contents of the shipper, ship name, destination port, name, mark and number, number, weight and other items. The shipper with the unidirectional carrier's agent for the consignment, the agent to accept the carrier, the carrier name will be filled into the joint single, keep the consignment note, the other back to the shipper, the shipper or its agent by virtue of The Customs shall handle the export declaration procedures; after the customs has agreed to release the goods, the shipper or its agent shall ship or sell the goods directly to the port warehouse; Company, the ship arrived in Hong Kong, with this cargo handling, each ticket is loaded on board the ship, the masters retained the loading order, signed the receipt; tally company will return the shipper, shipper The bill of lading to the agent in exchange for the bill of lading, the shipper with a bill of lading until the bank for settlement, and the bill of lading to the consignee.
Loading order: the carrier for the shipping documents. Is the ship company or its agent in the shipper to accept the consignment application, issued to the shipper or freight forwarders of the document, the carrier's agent based on the consignment note to fill the list of loading and cargo list, according to the carrier's Request, according to the loading list to prepare the cargo stowage chart, the ship arrived in Hong Kong, sent to the mate after the signature, the ship retained a number of copies of the agent, forwarded to the carrier's port of discharge agent; The agent shall, in accordance with the actual situation of the ship, revise the list of goods and, after the signature of the mate, go through the formalities for the departure of the ship to the customs; the freight list shall be filled in accordance with the manifest list and sent to the carrier's port of discharge and the carrier the company.
2. Ship unloading documents (handled by the consignee)
Receipt: When the goods are shipped, the mate of the carrier is issued to the shipper, indicating that the goods have been received and shipped the goods receipt. The consignee to receive the original bill of lading, to the carrier's agent in exchange for the bill of lading; agent issued a bill of lading, must maintain the original bill of lading, manifest and bill of lading content consistent; consignee with the bill of lading to the customs clearance After the formalities, and then to the port warehouse or the ship to extract the goods; goods after the clearance, the consignment note to retain the port warehouse for reference; consignee goods received less than the bill of lading or damage, the need to obtain a single cargo or cargo damage orders, And by virtue of the agent to the carrier claims.
3. Maritime action
1, marine cargo transport is the main mode of international trade and transport
International marine cargo transport, although the existence of low speed, the risk of the larger, but because of its ability to pass large, large transport, low freight, and strong adaptability to the goods, coupled with the global unique geographical conditions, make it Become the main mode of transport in international trade. 80% to 90% of the total import and export of goods in China is carried out by means of maritime transport. Due to the rise and development of container transportation, not only the transportation of goods is integrated into the direction of integration and rationalization, but also saves the goods and materials , To reduce the cargo damage, to ensure the quality of transport, shorten the transport time, thereby reducing the cost of transport.
2, marine cargo transport is the country to save foreign exchange payments, increase foreign exchange earnings one of the important channels
In China, freight costs generally account for about 10% of the total foreign trade import and export, especially the bulk cargo freight accounted for a greater proportion of trade if the full use of international trade terms, for our multi-ship, not only save foreign exchange payments, but also Can earn more foreign exchange earnings. Especially to our capacity into the international shipping market, and actively carry out the transport of third countries, for the country to create foreign exchange earnings. At present, countries around the world, especially coastal developing countries, attach great importance to the establishment of their own ocean fleet, focusing on the development of marine cargo transport. Some shipping developed countries, foreign exchange freight income as an important pillar of the national economy of these countries.
3, the development of marine transport industry is conducive to improving the country's industrial structure and the structure of international trade exports
Marine transport is based on the practice of navigational activities, which are based on shipbuilding, maritime technology and skilled seafarers. Shipbuilding industry is a comprehensive industry, its development can drive the iron and steel industry, ship equipment industry, electronic instrumentation industry development, and promote the country's industrial structure improvement. China's original ship importer, in recent years has gradually become a ship exporter, and is moving into the ranks of ships exporting countries. As China's maritime technology continues to develop, crew assignment services have attracted the attention of countries around the world. Marine transport industry development, China's ocean shipping fleet has entered the world's top ten list for the future large-scale shipbreaking industry to provide the conditions, not only for China's iron and steel smelting to provide cheap raw materials, energy conservation and import ore Of consumption, and can export scrap. It can be seen that the development of the maritime transport industry not only improves the national industrial structure, but also improves the commodity structure in international trade.
4, marine transport fleet is an important reserve force of national defense
The maritime ocean-going fleet has traditionally been used as a logistical tool in wartime. The United States, Britain and other countries to the merchant fleet known as: "In addition to land, sea and air outside the fourth service", the former Soviet Union's merchant fleet has also been Western countries called "shadow fleet." It can be seen that its role in the outcome of the war. Because marine transport occupies such an important position, all countries in the world attach great importance to the maritime shipping industry, through legislation to protect, from the funds to support and subsidies in the cargo to give concessions.